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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that disrupts the flow of information within the brain, and between the spinal cord and body. Early MS symptoms include weakness, tingling, numbness, and blurred vision. Other signs are muscle stiffness, thinking problems, and urinary problems. Effective treatment can relieve MS symptoms and delay disease progression
Research has shown that people with Multiple Sclerosis make greater improvements while under the care of experienced clinicians within a specialist Multiple Sclerosis service. The American Center for Psychiatry and Neurology is the first of its kind in the UAE to offer specialist, coordinated multidisciplinary management of MS, with patients able to access a range of services and treatments tailored specifically to their individual needs.
To date, there is no definitive single laboratory test to confirm Multiple Sclerosis, therefore a confirmed diagnosis requires a comprehensive evaluation by a Neurologist with expertise in the field of MS. At the American Center for Psychiatry and Neurology we have some of the region’s leading Neurologists able to provide premier treatment and individualized care.
What is ARFID? ARFID is an eating or feeding disturbance that is characterized by a persistent failure to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs. It is the second most common eating disorder in children 12 years and younger but unfortunately largely under diagnosed: 63% of pediatricians are unfamiliar with this diagnosis.
It describes individuals whose symptoms do not match the criteria for traditional eating disorder diagnoses (no fear of weight gain), but who experience clinically significant struggles with eating and food: difficulty digesting certain foods, avoiding certain colors or textures of food, eating only very small portions or being afraid to eat to the extent that they are not getting enough to eat and/or become impaired psycho-socially.
ARFID is more than just “picky eating”; children do not grow out of it and often become malnourished because of the limited variety of foods they will eat.
Who gets it?
What is Night Eating Syndrome? Most of us have had the urge to grab a bite to eat in the middle of the night when we can’t sleep, feel worried or just have after-dinner hunger pangs. But when eating in the middle of the night gets out of control, your health may be in danger. Consistently consuming most of your calories between the dinner hour and breakfast time is a warning sign of night eating syndrome, or nocturnal eating syndrome (NES). NES is a serious eating disorder that has been linked with depression, stress, hormonal imbalances and abnormal sleep patterns.
What are the symptoms of Night Eating Syndrome?
How do you know when you’ve crossed the line between after-dark snacking and disordered eating habits? Night eating syndrome is associated with a number of unhealthy behaviors, including:
Health Risks and Complications
NES is a serious eating disorder that can have a negative impact on your diet and your sleeping patterns. Many of those who struggle with this syndrome become overweight or obese as a result of their late-night eating habits, according to Obesity Reviews. Obesity can lead to a number of severe, chronic health complications.
Getting up to eat interrupts your sleep, which could affect your mood, memory and cognitive performance. The loss of sleep can interfere with concentration, increase your risk of accidental injury, and contribute to depression or anxiety disorders. . If you’ve been eating in the middle of the night for more than a week or two, your eating patterns should be evaluated by an eating disorders specialist.
What is Bigorexia (also referred to as muscle dysmorphia or reverse anorexia)? It’s a form of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (DSM 5) that results in a variety of obsessive-compulsive behaviors regarding diet and fitness Individuals with bigorexia develop an obsession with their muscularity believing themselves to be too weak and small no matter how big their muscles are. The condition is also referred to as ‘reverse anorexia.’ In anorexia, a person diets excessively due to a fear of gaining weight but fails to see himself thin enough, in contrast, in bigorexia, the person eats excessively especially high-protein foods to develop a big body but fails to ever see himself big enough.
It’s characterized by an intense fear that one is insufficiently muscular no matter how muscular he is in the reality:
Who gets it?
Although men are most susceptible, both men and women can be affected by this disorder. Approximately 10% of the men who are obsessive gym-goers have this disorder
What is Bulimia Nervosa? Bulimia nervosa is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by a cycle of bingeing and compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, diuretics or over-exercising designed to undo or compensate for the effects of binge eating. It's important to note these methods are very dangerous, completely ineffective in calorie removal and with time promote weight gain.
What are the Symptoms?
The chance for recovery increases the earlier bulimia nervosa is detected. Therefore, it is important to be aware of some of the warning signs of bulimia nervosa.
Orthorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an obsession on consuming only healthy and clean food.
What are the symptoms of orthorexia?
What is Binge-Eating Disorder? Despite the fact that it affects millions of Americans, binge eating disorder (BED) is a widely misunderstood mental disorder. This illness, which involves frequent overeating marked by distress and lack of control, has long been underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
Bingeing goes beyond feeling “stuffed” or overeating on occasion. Binges become a regular occurrence, feel out of control and are followed by distress, shame and embarrassment. Binge eating disorder is a severe, life-threatening and treatable eating disorder. Common aspects of BED include functional impairment, suicide risk and a high frequency of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Binge eating disorder is the most common eating disorder in the United States, affecting 3.5% of women, 2% of men,1 and up to 1.6% of adolescents.
What is Anorexia Nervosa? Anorexia nervosa is a serious medical and mental health condition that can be life-threatening. Anorexia is characterized by an obsessive fear of weight gain and a refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and typically a distorted body image. Sufferers may restrict caloric intake or purge calories consumed through vomiting (also called purging), laxative/diuretic abuse and/or compulsive exercise.
Who gets it?
Attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood behavioral disorder that can continue its progression into adulthood. Symptoms in children include difficulty staying focused, over-activity and impulsivity. Children with ADHD often find it hard to complete tasks and perform up to their peers and often have problems at school.
There are three subtypes of ADHD which include:
Development is the process by which a child learns new skills to interact with those around them and survive in their environment. It happens at a rapid rate during early childhood. Basic skills developed are combined to learn more complex skills such as walking, playing, speaking and thinking. Although children grow at different rates, certain milestones of development such as sitting, walking, talking etc. are associated with particular age groups. Some children may catch up with their peers after displaying an initial delay in development (transient developmental delay) while others show significant developmental delay that need further evaluation (persistent developmental delay).
Children may show persistent developmental delay in one or more areas including:
Sleep is essential for physical health and emotional wellbeing. Everyone experiences occasional sleeping problems, but if your child repeatedly experiences problems sleeping, it could indicate an underlying health problem. Sleep disorders are problems associated with sleeping, including difficulty falling or staying asleep through the night, feeling sleepy during the day, snoring, breathing pauses while sleeping, sleepwalking, nightmares or waking up feeling exhausted. Because of lack of sleep, your child may find it difficult to concentrate and perform activities of daily living. This lack of sleep can lead to problems in mood, learning and behavior, or other health problems.
Some of the common types of sleep disorders include:
Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neuro developmental disorders characterized by impaired social skills, communication and behavior, which are usually recognized in the first three years of life. A range of symptoms may occur in different combinations of varying severity.
Epilepsy is a condition caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which produce episodes of involuntary shaking (seizures)that may be followed by periods of unconsciousness. Seizures may be generalized, involving the whole brain, or partial, where a part of the brain is involved. Generalized seizures may present as staring spells, unconsciousness, sporadic jerking movements, muscle rigidity, or loss of muscle tone, causing your child to fall down. Partial seizures may produce changes in sensation (hearing, vision, smell, taste or touch), involuntary chewing, lip smacking and other repetitive movements, and emotional disturbances. Other symptoms of epilepsy include confusion and staring spells. Epilepsy usually begins in childhood.
Your child’s doctor will first rule out other possible causes of seizures before confirming a diagnosis of epilepsy. A thorough history and physical examination is performed. Your child’s doctor may order blood tests, an electroencephalogram (EEG) to study the electrical activity of the brain and an MRI to look for brain abnormalities.
Phonology is referred to as the study of the sounds of language. Pronunciation errors are common in children when they are learning to talk. During the child’s development stages, phonological disorders can affect a child’s ability to learn, read or spell. Speech problems are usually temporary and can often be overcome.
Types of problems with speech may include:
Some of the common speech disorders are:
Memory is the ability to retain and retrieve information. Memory retained indefinitely such as your name, where you work or how to ride a bike is termed long-term memory. Working memory is the ability to hold on to information for a short while as you process and integrate it with new information being received. This includes remembering the beginning of a sentence when you reach its end or remembering numbers while performing simple math. Difficulties with learning are usually associated with difficulties in working memory.
Difficulties with working memory may be present by itself or as a feature in a wide variety of specific learning difficulties which may include:
Movements are produced by an interaction between the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles. Damage to any of these structures can lead to disruption or loss of movement. Movement disorders are a group of neurological disorders characterized by abnormal involuntary or voluntary movements. Deficit in movements may involve weakness, paralysis or exaggerated reflexes of voluntary muscles, decreased movement of involuntary muscles, and loss of coordination.
Some movement disorders in children may include
These conditions are rare but collectively they have a substantial impact on the local healthcare system. These conditions require a systematic and evidence-based diagnostic approach with continuous discussion with parents. Many a times a definitive diagnosis is not reached in spite of all the investigative processes and in those cases symptomatic management is initiated. We have collaborated with accredited and reputed laboratories across the country for the judicious use of investigative procedures. Once the diagnosis is made appropriate referral to the clinical geneticist and metabolic physician is made.
Behavioral problems are common in children as they grow up and learn to relate to people and situations. They may show defiance and have difficulty getting along with others, causing them to talk back and get into fights. If these problems are persistent and cannot be corrected with time, advice or redirection, it may be a sign of a behavioral disorder.
Behavioral disorders may be recognized through symptoms such as anger, defiance, involvement in law-breaking activities, lack of empathy, being aggressive and impulsive, poor performance at school, premature sexual activity, and inability to handle frustrations. Substance abuse and suicidal tendencies are common in those with behavioral disorders;hence, it is necessary to seek assistance early. While the dynamics of the family and upbringing play a vital role, behavioral disorders may also be associated with other mental health problems, such as depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Pain in any region of the head is called a headache. It may involve one or both sides of the head and may radiate to the neck and shoulders. Your child may experience dull pressure, a throbbing sensation or sharp pain that may last anywhere between an hour to days.In some cases it may indicate a serious underlying disease.
Headaches are broadly classified into 2 types:
A neuromuscular disease is a disorder that affects the muscles and the nerves that control them. Neuromuscular disorders are conditions caused by impaired neuronal activity of the nerves that control the voluntary muscle activities. Children with neuromuscular disorders often experience muscle pain or weakness, muscle twitching, cramping, numbness and tingling, and muscle stiffness that causes joint deformities and sometimes difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Neuromuscular disorders in children may be present at the time of birth or may develop at later stages of life.
NeuroStar TMS Therapy is an FDA-cleared, non-drug treatment for patients with depression who are not satisfied with the results of standard antidepressant medication. Proven safe and effective, NeuroStar TMS Therapy achieves results without the side effects often associated with antidepressant medications.
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